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Cynthia Ledford, MD


Staff photo

395 W 12th Ave
Columbus, OH 43210

Phone: (614) 293-8589

Email: ledford.5@osu.edu

 

Current OSU Appointments

Associate Professor-Clinical, General Internal Medicine

Physician, FGP-General Internal Medicine

Associate Professor-Clinical, Pediatrics

 

Biographical

To summarize my background and preparation for my career as a clinician educator. I completed a Medical Education Fellowship from 1992 to 1993. After a 1-month long immersion training, I became a facilitator for the Stanford Faculty Development Program in Clinical Teaching. From 2003 through 2009, I completed the Association of American Medical College's Medical Education Research Certificate. Most recently I added to my skills through Harvard Macy Institute's Systems Approach to Assessment in Health Professions. I continue to add to and utilize the skills I have acquired as an educator.



I teach students at all levels of the curriculum: 1) in early clinical courses teaching clinical and clinical reasoning skills, 2) as portfolio coach, 3) in intermediate level clinical courses, specifically the Internal Medicine clerkship, and 4) in senior electives such as the Honors Elective, Stories of Value elective, and Medical Education Electives. I serve as a core clinical teacher in the internal medicine residency program, as ambulatory continuity preceptor and, in the past, as inpatient attending. I received consistently high ratings, with >90% demonstration of positive teaching behaviors and >90% Very Good to Excellent rating. (see course descriptions, as well as learner and peer evaluations)



My biggest strength and impact nationally is based on my skills and reputation as an innovative educator. Lead.Serve.Inspire (LSI) , Ohio State's new MD curriculum is the largest and most extensive innovation to date, with matriculants now entering their senior year. This curriculum, and its portfolio and portfolio coach program recently received recognition from the LCME (March 2014). The design of LSI extends so many earlier innovations that I have undertaken, including those related to teaching clinical reasoning (Clinical Analysis and Problem Solving (CAPS) course, Capstone course, Student Report) and professional identity formation (professionalism) (Stories of Value, Medicine Mentors, Midrotation Feedback). An additional focus of innovative work for me is faculty development, specifically online faculty development (Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Setting, FacultyDevelopment4MedicalEducators (FD4ME). Further details are available under "Curriculum Development" section of the dossier.



My career has been one dedicated to service to Ohio State; I highlight 3 service roles that provide a perspective on the depth of my service commitments: Assistant Dean for Evaluation and Assessment, Associate Vice Chair for Education, and Clerkship Director for Internal Medicine. (see service narrative) Working nationally with others, I have the honored of serving on the Council of the Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine and through committee work with the National Board of Medical Examiners and Alliance of Academic Internal Medicine, as well as service as reviewer to Academic Medicine, associate editor of Teaching and Learning in Medicine, and associate editor for FacultyDevelopment4MedicalEducators.



My scholarly approach to education has been recognized through 10 individual awards of external funding, including 4 as principal investigator (PI) or co-PI (SGIM mentorship, CGEA collaborative grant, HRSA- faculty development grant, ABIM Foundation grant). I have given a number of national scholarly presentations and have assumed key faculty roles in national faculty development coursework. I have published books (3) and several chapters in books (10), as well as peer reviewed articles (14) and online learning curricula (3).

Published Works

I have published books (3) and several chapters in books (10), as well as peer-reviewed or editor-reviewed articles (14). Given my work in education innovations, I also focused on online publications including the FacultyDevelopment4Medical Educators (entire web-programing) including inaugural modules (4) and online modules for students through MedU, a non-profit founded by clinician educators and leader in clerkship student materials (2), as well as work with a national group of collaborators, a video for faculty development ("Medical student abuse or not?").

Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Courses Taught

I have the privilege of serving as a direct teacher of students at all levels of the curriculum: 1) in early clinical courses like CAPS (introduction to clinical skills and behavioral sciences) and Part 1- Lead.Serve.Inspire, 2) as portfolio coach, 3) in intermediate level clinical courses as Medicine Mentor (bedside teaching), Student Report (clinical reasoning and evidence-based medicine), Didactics, and Inpatient Clinical Teaching, and 4) in senior electives such as the Honors Elective in Internal Medicine, Stories of Value elective, and Medical Education electives. The methods that I use most often and excel at involve facilitated groups or 1:1 teaching, e.g. individualized clinical skills and mentored projects, and direct clinical teaching. My areas of content expertise are professionalism (professional identity formation) and clinical reasoning, as well as core clinical skills essential to all physicians. I am a core faculty preceptor for residents in the primary care program.

Creative Works

Creative works pertinent to my career include the faculty development websites that I created (Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Setting, FacultyDevelopment4MedicalEducators) and published eModules for the student curriculum (SIMPLE through MedU, High Value Care Curriculum- Clinical Teaching and High Value Care).

Research Funding

In this section, it is important to note that the percent effort reflects the funded portion of an external grant toward my total salary and not the percent effort on the specific project as is used in the section on scholarly works.



In general, my job description has not included an FTE for research and scholarship. External funding, when release time is included, has been one way that I acquired some protected time for publications, typically no more than 5% of my FTE. As a result, I recoup my research FTE (salary support) at a rate of ~75%.

Academic Advising

2001 - 2002 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2002. Letters of support, career advising to 10
2004 - 2005 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2005. career advising, letter of recommendation to 76
2005 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2005. Career advising, letter of recommendation for 62
2006 - 2007 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2007. Career advising and letter of recommendation for 56
2007 - 2008 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2008. career advising and Letter of recommendation for 60
2008 - 2009 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2009. Career advising and letter of recommendation for 64
2009 - 2010 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2010. career advising and letter of recommendation for 25
2010 - 2011 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2011. Career advising and letter of recommendation for 15, oversight of 44 more
2011 - 2012 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2012. Career advising and letter of recommendation for 15, oversight of 64 more
2012 - 2013 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2013. careeer advisor to 16, oversight of 35 others
2013 - 2014 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2014. career advising to 22. oversight of 44 more
2015 Student, N., The Ohio State University. Graduated 2015. Career advising and letter of recommendation for 6, oversight of 58 total
 

Books

Ledford CH, Cronau HR, Bahn T. Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Setting. Columbus: OSU College of Medicine, January 2006.

CDIM/SGIM Curriculum Guide Task Force. Core Medicine Curriculum Guide: A Resource for Teachers and Students. Washington, DC: AAIM Publications, January 2006.

Ledford, CH, Cronau H, Mack D, Curren, C, Post, D, Rizer, M. Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Setting, 2nd Edition. Columbus: Ohio State University College of Medicine, July 2012.

 

Certifications

1996 - present Ohio Medical License: State Medical Board of Ohio
1997 - present Board Certified, Diplomat: American Board of Internal Medicine
1998 - present Fellow: American Academy of Pediatrics
2009 - present Fellow: American College of Physicians
1998 - 2013 Board Certified: American Board of Pediatrics
 

Chapters in Books

Ledford, CH. "Obesity, Adolescence." In Encyclopedia of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion. Edited by TP Gullotta and M Bloom. 750-755. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, January 2003.

Ledford CH. "General Outpatient Skills." In First Exposure, Outpatient Internal Medicine Edition I. Edited by Griffith C, and Hollein A. -. New York: McGraw-Hill, January 2006.

Ledford, CH. "Diagnostic and Therapeutic Decision Making." In First Exposure, Inpatient Internal Medicine Edition. Edited by Griffith, C and Hollein, A. -. New York: McGraw-Hill, January 2006.

Ledford, CH. "Skin Cancer." In ACP-CDIM Medicine Essentials. Edited by P. Alguire. 231-241. Philadelphia: ACP Press, January 2006.

Ledford, CH. "Lung Cancer." In ACP-CDIM Medicine Essentials. Edited by Alguire, P. -. Philadelphia: ACP Press, January 2006.

Ledford, CH. "Teaching in the Ambulatory Setting." In The Clinical Teaching Handbook. -. Columbus: Ohio State University College of Medicine, January 2007.

Ledford CH, Goddard L. "Formulating a Differential Diagnosis." In Primer to the Internal Medicine Clerkship. -. Columbus: CDIM, January 2007.

Ledford, CH. ""Basic Education Theory"." In The Clinical Teaching Handbook. -. Columbus: OSUCOM, January 2007.

Ledford, CH. "Essential Organization and Time Management Skills." In Primer to the Subinternship Rotation. -. Columbus: CDIM, January 2008.

Ledford CH and Nixon LJ. "General Teaching Techniques." In Teaching Clinical Reasoning. Edited by Trowbridge D, Durning S, and Rencic J. -. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, April 2015.

 

Clinical Services

07/01/2013 OSU General Internal Medicine at CarePoint East (CarePoint East)
09/01/2000 - 10/01/2001 OSU IM and Pediatrics at Polaris (Polaris)
09/01/2001 - 06/01/2009 OSU Newborn Nursery (Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center)
07/01/2001 - 09/01/2009 OSU IM and Pediatrics at Grandview (Grandview)
06/01/2002 - 10/01/2011 Inpatient General Medicine Services (Ohio State Wexner Medical Center)
10/01/2009 - 06/01/2013 OSU General Internal Medicine at Morehouse (Morehouse Medical Pavilian)

Degrees

1986 B.S., University Of Cincinnati

1992 M.D., The Ohio State University

 

Editorial Activities

2008 - 2010 Academic Medicine
2010 - present FacultyDevelopment4MedicalEducators
2012 - present Teaching and Learning in Medicine
2015 - present Guidebook for Clerkship Directors
 

Honors

1990 - present Induction. Alpha Omega Alpha Honorary Society.
1992 - present Dean's Award for Outstanding Contributions to College of Medicine. Ohio State Univesity College of Medicine.
1992 - present Medical Staff Achievement Award. Ohio State Univesity College of Medicine.
2004 - present Excellence in Teaching Award. Department of Internal Medicine.
2009 - present Courage to Teach. Ohio State Univesity College of Medicine.
2010 - present Excellence in Teaching Award. College.
2013 - present Distinguished Educator Award. Ohio State Univesity College of Medicine.
2015 - present CDIM Louis N. Pangaro MD Educational Program Development Award. Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine.
2015 - present Master Teacher Award. Ohio Chapter of the American College of Physicians.
 

Journal Articles

Ogden PE, Wu EH, Elnicki MD, Battistone MJ, Cleary LC, Fagan MJ, Friedman E, Gliatto PM, Harrell HE, Jennings MS, Ledford CH, Mechaber AJ, Mintz M, O'Brien K, Thomas MR, Wong RJ. "Do Attending Physicians, Nurses, Residents, and Medical Students Agree on What Constitutes Medical Student Abuse?." Academic Medicine. Vol. 80, (January 2005.): S80-S83.

Ledford CH, Lucey CR. "Growing Insights into Medical Professionalism." Academic Internal Medicine Insight. Vol. 4, no. 4. (January 2006.): 10-11.

Ledford CH, Headley A, Hollein A, Houghton B, Picchioni M, Pokala S, Speer A, Whelton S. "Journal Watch from the Alliance of Clinical Education: Annual Review of Medical Education Articles: 2004-2005." Teaching and Learning. Vol. 18, no. 3. (January 2006.): 273-277.

Pokala,Suma; Headly,Anna; Hoellein,Andrew,R; Ledford,Cynthia,H; Picchioni,Michael. "Journal Watch from ACE (Alliance for Clinical Education): Annual Review of Medical Education Articles in Internal Medicine Journals 2005-2006.." Teaching and learning in medicine. Vol. 19, no. 4. (October 2007.): 384-388.

Ledford CH. "No More Sloppy "SOP" Notes?." Academic Internal Medicine Insight. Vol. 5, no. 1. (January 2007.): 7-.

Aiyer,Meenakshy; Appel,Joel; Fischer,Melissa; Fitz,Matthew; Vu,T,Robert; Gliatto,Peter; Sweet,Michelle; Harrell,Heather; Ledford,Cynthia; Alvarez,Hugo; Kuzma,Mary,Ann. "The Role of the Internal Medicine Subinternship Director in the 21st Century.." The American Journal of Medicine. Vol. 121, no. 8. (January 2008.): 733-7.

Aiyer,Meenakshy,K; Vu,T,Robert; Ledford,Cynthia; Fischer,Melissa; Durning,Steven,J. "The Subinternship Curriculum in Internal Medicine: A National Survey of Clerkship Directors.." Teaching and Learning in Medicine. Vol. 20, no. 2. (January 2008.): 151-6.

Tartaglia, K. M., Kman, N., Cronau, H., Ledford, C.. "Integrating a curriculum on cost-conscious care into undergraduate medical education.." Journal of General Internal Medicine. Vol. 28, no. S. (January 2010.): S468-469.

Baker E, Ledford C, Liston B. "Teaching, Evaluating, and Remediating Clinical Reasoning." Academic Internal Medicine Insight. Vol. 8, no. 1. (January 2010.): 12-17.

Reed S, Shell R, Kassis K, Tartaglia K, Wallihan R, Smith K, Hurtubise L, Martin B, Ledford, C, Bradbury S, Berstein HH, Mahan JD. "Applying Adult Learning Practices in Medical Education." Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care. Vol. 44, no. 6. (January 2014.): 170-181.

Tartaglia, KM, Kman N, Ledford C. "Medical Student Perceptions of Cost-Conscious Care in an Internal Medicine Clerkship: A Thematic Analysis." Journal of General Internal Medicine. Vol. 30, (May 2015.): 1-6.

Baker EA, Ledford CH, Way DA, Park YS. "The IDEA rating instrument: assessing the reporting, diagnostic reasoning and decision making skills demonstrated in medical students’ hospital admission notes." Teaching and Learning in Medicine. Vol. 27, no. 2. (April 2015.): 163-173.

Bixler, MG, Brown, A, Way, DA, Ledford CH, Mahan JD. "Collaborative concept mapping to improve critical thinking in 4th year medical students." Clinical Pediatrics. Vol. 54, no. 9. (August 2015.): 833-839.

Hurtubise LC, Turner TL, Ledford CH, Mahan JD. "Getting Started with Online Faculty Development." Journal of Graduate Medical Education. -.

 

Softwares

January 2005 Mechager A, Jennings M, Fagan M, Ledford C, Cleary L, Elnicki M."Medical Student Abuse...or not?"
January 2006 Ledford CH, Cronau HR, Bahn T.."Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Setting"
January 2008 Ledford, CH."28-year old male with rash - Mr. Moeller, Simulated Internal Medicine Problem Learning Exercises" ilnTime
November 2014 Tartaglia, K, Ledford, CH."Clinical Teaching and HIgh Value Care" MedU-

Presentations

"Identification of the Hepatic Na+ Dependent Transporter through Substrate Protection and Sulfhydryl Labeling." Presented at American Gastroenterological Association National Meeting, New Orleans. (May 1988)

"Critical Role of Sulfhydryl Groups in Hepatic Na+ Dependent Bile Acid Transport." Presented at American Gastroenterological Association National Meeting, New Orleans. (May 1988)

"Adolescent Medicine and the Young Adult: New Directions for Internal Medicine." Presented at Society of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco. (January 1999)

"Adolescent Medicine and the Young Adult: New Directions for Internal Medicine." Presented at Society of General Internal Medicine, Boston. (May 2000)

"Clinical Teaching." Presented at Internal Medicine Residency Retreat, . (July 2000)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Savannah, GA. (October 2001)

"Clinical Teaching." Presented at Internal Medicine Residency Retreat, . (July 2001)

"Update in Medicine Pediatrics: A Concise Review of Key Developments in the Fields by the Primary Care Reading Group." Presented at Ohio ACP Chapter meeting, Cleveland. (October 2001)

"Faculty Development for Internal Medicine Faculty: Evaluation and Feedback." Presented at Mt Carmel Faculty Development Series, Columbus. (November 2001)

"Faculty Development for Community-Based Faculty." Presented at Kettering Medical Center Faculty Development, Dayton. (February 2001)

"Adolescent Medicine and the Young Adult: New Directions for Internal Medicine." Presented at Society for General Internal Medicine, San Diego. (May 2001)

"Developing Residents as Teachers." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine, Washington DC. (January 2002)

"Update on Management of Upper Respiratory Infections in Children and Adults." Presented at OMEN-TV, . (January 2002)

"Faculty Development Series on Clinical Teaching: Stanford Faculty Development Program." Presented at Department's Faculty Development Series, Columbus. (September 2002)

"Analysis of Feedback Given to Third-Year Medical Students." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine National Meeting, Savannah. (October 2003)

"Student Morning Report: Teaching and Learning Clinical Reasoning Skills During the Third Year Medicine Clerkship." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine National Meeting, Savannah. (October 2003)

"Strategies and Tools for Improving Feedback Given to Medical Students." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington DC. (November 2003)

"Medical Education Research." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine National Meeting, Nashville. (October 2004)

"The CAPSTONE Course: Putting the Final "Capstone" on an Integrated Program of Preclinical Studies through an Immersion in Problem-Based Learning." Presented at Association for the American Medical Colleges National Meeting, Washington DC. (November 2004)

"Educating Professionals." Presented at Grand Rounds, Columbus. (September 2005)

"Educating Professionals." Presented at Grand Rounds, Columbus. (September 2005)

"How to give efficient feedback and promote self-directed learning." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine National Meeting, Portland. (October 2005)

"Do Attending Physicians, Nurses, Residents, and Medical Students Agree on What Constitutes Medical Student Abuse?." Presented at Association for the American Medical Colleges National Meeting (Research in Medical Education Presentation), Washington DC. (November 2005)

"Subinternship Curriculum in Internal Medicine - Where do We Stand?." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges National Meeting, Washington DC. (October 2006)

"Treating Professionalism Lapses as a Form of Medical Error." Presented at Association for the American Medical Colleges Regional Meeting, Kansas City. (March 2006)

"Educating Resilient Professionals: Professionalism as a Skill based Competency." Presented at Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine National Meeting (Academic Internal Medicine Week), New Orleans. (October 2006)

"Community Based Teaching of Medical Students." Presented at Association for the American Medical Colleges National Meeting, Seattle. (October 2006)

"Teaching Clinical Reasoning Skills." Presented at Faculty Retreat, OSU College of Optometry, Marietta. (March 2006)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students, New Clerkship Directors Pre-Course." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, New Orleans. (October 2006)

"Effective Approaches to Teaching and Evaluating Clinical Reasoning Skills." Presented at Group on Educational Affairs, Central Region Meeting, Indianapolis. (March 2007)

"Bridging the Gap between Didactic and Clinical Learning." Presented at Optometry Externship Faculty Development Seminar, . (April 2007)

"Integrating Professionalism into the Curriculum: Professionalism as a Measurable and Teachable Skill." Presented at Pediatric Academic Soceity National Meeting, Toronto, CA|CAN. (May 2007)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students, New Clerkship Directors Pre-Course." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Pittsburgh. (October 2007)

"Virtual Classroom and Online Role Plays as Tools for Developing Clinical Teaching in Faculty." Presented at Group on Educational Affairs, Central Region Meeting, Indianapolis. (March 2007)

"Increased Medical School Class Size: How Do We Adapt?." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine National Meeting, Pittsburgh. (October 2007)

"Increased Medical School Class Size: How Do We Adapt?." Presented at Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine Meeting, Pittsburg. (October 2007)

"The One Minute Preceptor and other Time Efficient Teaching Skills." Presented at Society for Teachers of Family Medicine: Regional Faculty Development Series Workshop, . (December 2007)

"Educating Resilient Professionals: Professionalism as a Skill based Competency." Presented at Society of General Internal Medicine National Meeting, Toronta, CA|CAN. (April 2007)

"Faculty Development on the Fly: Enhancing Teaching at your Institution." Presented at Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine National Meeting, . (October 2008)

"Increased Medical School Class Size: Implications for Clinical Clerkships." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges National Meeting, Orlando. (November 2008)

"Increased Medical School Class Size: Implications for Clinical Clerkships." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges National Meeting, . (November 2008)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students, New Clerkship Directors Pre-Course." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Orlando. (October 2008)

"Teaching, Assessing, and Remediating Clinical Reasoning Skills." Presented at Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. (October 2009)

"Understanding and Preventing Professionalism Lapses in Faculty and Students." Presented at University of Colorado, Denver Faculty Development Conference on Professionalism, Denver. (March 2009)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Philadelphia. (October 2009)

"Positive Educational Environments." Presented at Positive Educational Environments, Flint. (October 2009)

"Mentoring Junior Faculty." Presented at Experienced Clerkship Director Pre-course, San Antonio, TX. (October 2010)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Anaheim, CA. (October 2011)

"Technological Solutions to Educational Challenges." Presented at Experienced Clerkship Director Pre-course, Anaheim, CA. (October 2011)

"Competency-based Curriculum - An Overview on Development, Implementation & Accreditation." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges Annual Meeting, . (November 2011)

"Understanding Professionalism, Educating Professionals." Presented at Graduate Medical Education Program, Columbus, OH. (January 2011)

"Turning the Titanic: Encouraging Professionalism at the Individual Level." Presented at Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Nashville, TN. (February 2011)

"Implementing a Culture of Professionalism at a Large Academic Center." Presented at Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Nashville, TN. (February 2011)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. (October 2012)

"Professionalism Challenges in Academic Health Professional Schools." Presented at OSU College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio. (January 2012)

"Putting the Charter into Practice, Panel Discussion, Sponsored Session." Presented at Association of American Medical Colleges National Meeting, Denver, CO. (January 2012)

"Educational Technologies 2.0." Presented at N/A, Carbondale, IL. (May 2012)

"Attracting Students to Internal Medicine: Increasing the Appeal." Presented at Association of Professors of Medicine, . (March 2012)

"Milestones and Longitudinal Assessment: Future Direction and Implications for Clerkship Education." Presented at Alliance of Academic Internal Medicine Week, . (October 2013)

"Learning & Assessment." Presented at Competency-based Learning & Assessment, . (June 2013)

"Using Performance Reports to guide Deliberate Practice in a Competency-based UME Program." Presented at Central Group on Educational Affairs, Cincinatti, Ohio. (March 2013)

"Evaluating and Grading Medical Students." Presented at Alliance for Academic Medicine National Meeting, New Orleans, LA. (October 2013)

"Development of a Cost-Benefit Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education." Presented at Central group on Educational Affairs, Cincinnati, Ohio. (March 2013)

"Curriculum Mapping: Challenges and Creative Strategies to Integrating MedBiquitous." Presented at Central Group on Educational Affairs, . (March 2013)

"Stanford Faculty Development Program for Clinical Teaching." Presented at Ohio State's COM Celebration of Education Event, . (June 2014)

"Moving towards online faculty development: the view over the horizon." Presented at ACGME International Meeting, . (April 2015)

 

Professional Activities

1999 - present Stanford Faculty Development Program (SFDP). Palo Alto, CA.
2003 - present Medical Education Research Certificate.